The Search for Planet X : นักดาราศาสตร์ได้คำตอบเริ่มต้น อะไรจุดระเบิด “ซูเปอร์โนวา”

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Re: The Search for Planet X : นักดาราศาสตร์ได้คำตอบเริ่มต้น อะไรจุดระเบิด “ซูเปอร์โนวา”

ตั้งหัวข้อ  hacksecret on Wed Mar 10, 2010 12:15 am

Nerc MST Radar Facility
NMRF
HAARP Like Facility
+52° 25' 28.26", -4° 00' 19.59"
Capel Dewi, Carmarthenshire, Wales, United Kingdom
near Aberystwyth, Wales, UK



This one is different but included anyway

The Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere (MST)
Radar at Aberystwyth

SOURCE: NERC
mst.nerc.ac.uk...



www.thelivingmoon.com...

National MST Radar Facility
NMRF
HAARP Like Facility
+13° 27' 26.68", +79° 10' 30.74"
Gadanki, near Tirupati, in southern Andra Pradesh, India



Visiting the National MST Radar Facility in Gadanki,
near Tirupati, in southern Andra Pradesh, India

ABOUT NATIONAL MST RADAR FACILITY

Indian scientists have carried out pioneering research work in the fields of astronomy
and astrophysics, solar/interplanetary medium, earth's upper atmosphere/ionosphere,
aeronomy/middle atmosphere and weather/climate phenomena. The nationally coordinated
Indian Middle Atmosphere Programme (IMAP) was implemented during the period 1982-89
with well focussed campaign experiments with ground based, balloon, rocket and
satellite based techniques. The IMAP programme led to the decision to conduct
in-depth studies of atmosphericdynamical phenomena by developing a versatile
ground based radar technique...

...The MST Radar is a state of the art instrument capable of providing estimates of
atmospheric parameters with very high resolution on a continuous basis which are essential
in the study of different dynamical processes in the atmosphere. It is an important research tool
in the investigation of prevailing winds, waves ( including gravity waves) turbulence,
and atmospheric stability & other mesoscale phenomena . A reliable three dimensional model
of the atmosphere over the low latitudes improves our understanding of the climatic
and weather variations...

Establishment of NMRF

Attaching great importance to the scientific utilisation of the Indian MST Radar,
the Government of India decided to create an autonomous Scientific Society called
the National MST Radar Facility (NMRF). This society is affliated to the Department Of Space.
The NMRF was registered on January 11, 1993 under the Indian Societies Act 1860.
This society is administered by a Governing Council under the chairmanship of
Dr. K. Kasturirangan, Secretary DOS with, Director , NMRF as the member secretary .
The present Director of NMRF is Prof D. Narayan Rao .The Governing Council consists
of other eminent scientists, representatives of the National Laboratories and some of
the funding agencies.The Governing Council sets broad policy guidelines to ensure
the effective scientific utilisation of the facility, supported by a Scientific Advisory Commitee
& a Finance Commitee.

Location Of NMRF

The scientific requirements dictated that the Indian MST Radar should be located preferably
below 15 degrees North latitude. Hence after careful consideration of the various constraints,
a site at Gadanki Village, near the temple town of Tirupati in the Chitoor district of Andhra Pradesh
was selected for locating the Indian MST Radar . NMRF is located off the Chitoor -Tirupati
main road in a picturesque landscape spreading over an area of about 42 acres.
Regular train and bus services are operated between Tirupati and Bangalore/Madras.
On request NMRF may provide transport between Tirupati and Gadanki.


SOURCE: The National MST Radar Facility (NMRF)
www.isro.org...



www.thelivingmoon.com...

Cherenkov Radiation around Antennas



Image courtesy ISRO

Jicamarca Radio Observatory
HAARP Like Facility
Lima, Peru
11° 57' 04.82" S 78° 52' 27.43" W



Image courtesy Colorado University

Introduction

The Jicamarca Radio Observatory is the equatorial anchor of the Western Hemisphere
chain of incoherent scatter radar (ISR) observatories extending from Lima, Perú,
to Søndre Strømfjord, Greenland. It is part of the Geophysical Institute of Peru
(Instituto Geofísico del Perú, or IGP) and receives the majority of its financial support
from the National Science Foundation of the U.S. through a Cooperative Agreement
with Cornell University.

The Observatory is the premier scientific facility in the world for studying the equatorial ionosphere.
It has a 2-MW transmitter and a main antenna with 18,432 dipoles covering an area of
nearly 85,000 square meters.


SOURCE: Jicamarca Radio Observatory
jicamarca.ece.cornell.edu...

Piura facility: Jicamarca Radio Observatory

The Observatory is about a half-hour drive inland (east) from Lima, Peru at a geographic
latitude of 11.95° south and a longitude of 76.87° west.
The altitude of the Observatory is about 500 m ASL. It is about 10 km from the Carretera Central,
the main highway east in Peru.

The Jicamarca Radio Observatory was built in 1960-61 by the Central Radio Propagation
Laboratory (CRPL) of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS).


Station Database
jro.igp.gob.pe...



Image Courtesy Cornell University

The Jicamarca Radio Observatory - Cornell University
jicamarca.ece.cornell.edu...

The 49.92 MHz ISR is the principal facility of the Observatory. The radar antenna consists
of a large square array of 18,432 half-wave dipoles arranged into 64 separate modules
of 12 x 12 crossed dipoles. Each linear polarization of each module can be separately phased
(by hand, changing cable lengths), and the modules can be fed separately or connected in
almost any desired fashion. There is great flexibility, but changes cannot be made rapidly.
The individual modules have a beam width of about 7 deg, and the array can be steered
within this region by proper phasing. The one way half power beam width of the full array
is about 1.1 deg; the two way (radar) half power width is about 0.8 deg. The frequency bandwidth
is about 1 MHz. The isolation between the linear polarizations is very good, at least 50 dB,
which is important for certain measurements. Since the array is on the ground and
the Observatory is the only sign of man in a desert region completely surrounded by mountains,
there is no RF interference. The transmitter consists of four completely independent modules
which can be operated together or separately. Only two of these modules are currently in
operation. Each can deliver ~1.5 MW peak power, with a maximum duty cycle of 6%,
and pulses as short as 0.8-1.0 µs. Pulses as long as 2 ms show little power droop;
considerably longer pulses are probably possible. Two additional modules with
the same properties will eventually be available.
The third is more than 90% complete; the fourth is well advanced but its completion
will require additional funding. The drivers of the main transmitter can also be used
as transmitters for applications requiring only 50- 100 KW of peak power...


SOURCE: Jicamarca Radio Observatorywww.kurasc.kyoto-u.ac.jp...

MUCH BIGGER THAN HAARP
Main Array



Visit the Jicamarca Radio Observatory homepage
jro.igp.gob.pe...



www.thelivingmoon.com...

Jindalee Operational Radar Network
JORN
JP 2025
Laverton, West [color:3e7e=#E0E060 ! important][color:3e7e=#E0E060 ! important]Australia
-28° 19' 36.29", +122° 0' 18.84"

Two Part System



Projects JP 2025 - Jindalee Operational Radar Network (JORN)

The JORN project arose out of extensive research undertaken by the Defence Science and
Technology Organisation (DSTO) into over-the horizon radar(OTHR) beginning in the early 1970s.
As part of the 1987 Defence White Paper, the Government placed a high priority on wide area
surveillance of the north and north western approaches to Australia and OTHR was seen to be
the most cost effective solution. As a consequence, in December 1990, the Government approved
the design and construction of JORN.

The Jindalee Operational Radar Network (JORN) consists of two OTHR, one near Longreach,
Qld. and the other near Laverton, WA, jointly operated from the JORN Coordination Centre (JCC)
at RAAF Base Edinburgh, SA by No 1 Radar Surveillance Unit. The radars are an advanced
development of the Australian designed Jindalee radar at Alice Receiver Site, Laverton WA
- click on image to enlargeSprings which is in operational use as well as being a research
and development facility used by DSTO for ongoing OTHR improvement. JORN radars are
capable of all weather detection of air and surface targets inside an arc of up to 3,000 km
range extending from Geraldton in the west around to Cairns in the east. JORN makes
a crucial contribution to broad area surveillance of Australia's strategically important
northern approaches.


SOURCE:
Australian Department of Defence
Defence Materiel Organisation
www.defence.gov.au...

Electronic Warfare & Radar Division - DSTO, Australia
www.dsto.defence.gov.au...



Courtesy Australian Department of Defence



Courtesy Australian Department of Defence




www.thelivingmoon.com...

Jindalee Operational Radar Network
JORN
Longreach, Queensland, Australia
-23° 39' 29.53", +144° 8' 49.58"

JORN Part Two

Communications '92: Communications Technology, Services and Systems; Getting It All Together

The Jindalee Operational Radar Network Communications and the Operational Concept
Nicholson, P1; Cameron, A2

Abstract: The operational concept of the Jindalee over-the-horizon operational radar network
(JORN) is the centralised control and co-ordination of remote sensors. The radar sites are
in Laverton, WA and Longreach, Queensland, while the co-ordination centre is situated in Adelaide,
South Australia. An extensive communications network is needed to control the radars and
their associated frequency management systems, transfer partly processed data for final analysis
at the co-ordination centre, and pass track information to the command support systems of
the Australian Defence Force and other users. The principle of operation, configuration and
concept of the Jindalee project are briefly outlined to provide the context of the communications
requirement. The communications infrastructure to support this operational concept is then
described together with the main factors which have influenced the design of JORN communications.


Papers Available Here
search.informit.com.au...;dn=563982181256363;res=IELENG




Consultancy Projects

Jindalee Operational Radar Network

RayTec Consulting has since its inception offered sub-contract services on the JORN project
across a broad spectrum of Systems Engineering disciplines from Requirements Analysis and Design,
Verification and Validation to Integration and Test.


SOURCE: www.raytec.com.au...

Electronic Warfare & Radar Division



High frequency surface wave radar. Credit DSTO

Electronic Warfare & Radar Division

Electronic Warfare & Radar Division provides scientific leadership and support to
the Australian Defence Organisation on the exploitation of the electromagnetic spectrum
to enhance the performance of our own sensors, weapons, platforms and command systems,
together with the ability to destroy the effectiveness of adversarial systems.

Weapons Systems Division

Weapons Systems Division provides scientific leadership and support covering all aspects
of weapon systems - including sensors, guidance, propulsion and warheads, and their integration
into combat platforms and command and control systems.

Command, Control, Communications & Intelligence Division

Command, Control, Communications & Intelligence Division provides scientific leadership
and support for Defence command, intelligence,communications, and business processes,
at both the operational and theatre levels of command. Support to the Australian
Defence Organisation includes Information Operations with special capabilities in
Information Security and Digital Forensics; Communications with special capabilities in
Satellite Communications, Mobile Networks and Network Management; Intelligence Processing
and Analysis with special capabilities in signals analysis, communications analysis,
automated fact extraction, and speech processing. The Division has organised its work program
to have a strong emphasis on support achieving the goals as outlined in
the Network Centric Warfare roadmap.

Intelligence, Surveillance & Reconnaissance Division

Intelligence, Surveillance & Reconnaissance Division provides scientific leadership and
support for strategic intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance systems,
with a focus on the needs of the intelligence community.

Land Operations Division

Land Operations Division provides scientific leadership and support to the Land Force
through structured and analytical approaches to capability development.


SOURCE: DSTO
www.dsto.defence.gov.au...




www.thelivingmoon.com...

Poker Flat Research Range
Near Chatanika, Alaska
+65° 7' 23.90", -147° 28' 7.05"

Still looking for the actual array in this area but Poker Flats covers
a wide terrain and the array is most likely hidden in the trees

Gate sign says NASA is lurking about and they mention the Aurora studies...




HAARP likely not Primary Ionospheric array in Alaska by Guy Cramer
www.superforce.com...

How to hide a HAARP by Guy Cramer

This first photo shows HAARP




The second photo shows HAARP with a camouflaged Array




The third image shows a completely concealed array, road and power
generation center, to show how easy it is to hide a large facility in a
location
like Alaska.



"The above illustrations demonstrate the capability to effectively conceal large land areas
containing hardware and buildings. In a similar initiative comprising the the most
comprehensive infrastructure concealment program since World War II, the design team
of Dr. Resnick, Lt. Col. Timothy R. O'Neill, PhD (U.S. Army, Ret.) and Mr. Guy Cramer have
produced remarkable results. Using specially designed "Fractal Based" camouflage
patterns in projects related to concealment of critical infrastructure under the auspices
of the US Department of the Interior's Bureau of Land Management, the team continues
to achieve desired objectives such as those shown below."


SOURCE: Guy Cramer Hyperstealth Tech
www.superforce.com...

We have found this one...

Chatanika Incoherent Scatter Facility
EISCAT Like Facility
Poker Flats
+65° 7' 1.34", -147° 27' 37.23"



Also found one small Array...
+65° 7' 55.61", -147° 27' 14.98"



And several 'suspicious' areas like this one



But Poker Flats is still a work in progress

It is said Russia has several HAARP like facilities, bt so far I have only found SURA

Back ib the scalar weapon and Tesla research days there are several objext left in Russia
that are very impressive. As they deal with antennas and as they are cool
I will add them here as well...

You will also have to visit my pages at the bottom of each post as I am only using
a few of the images and a little of the text... the full collection is on each page as I get new data...

First one is...

URDF-3 (Unidentified Research and Development Facility-3)
Baikal-1, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan
50°10'12.69"N, 78°22'36.84"W

This first appeared as a CIA satellite image



U.S. satellite reconnaissance photo of suspected Soviet beam weapon installation
near Semipalatinsk. Published July 28, 1980. (Courtesy Aviation Week & Space Technology)

Much has been written about the CIA search for Russia's Tesla Beam Weapon facility
and it is even one of the biggest cases for the Remote Viewing Project Stargate that
the CIA ran. One of the things that was a positive hit from the RV Team was
the hugh crane at the site...


Well that crane is STILL THERE...




Space Nuclear Facility test capability at the Baikal-1 and IGR sites Semipalatinsk-21, Kazakhstan

Hill, T. J.; Stanley, M. L.; Martinell, J. S. Presented at the Nuclear Power Engineering
in Space Nuclear Rocket Engines, Kazakhstan, Russia, 22-26 Sep. 1992

The International Space Technology Assessment Program was established 1/19/92
to take advantage of the availability of Russian space technology
and hardware. DOE had two delegations visit CIS and assess its space nuclear power
and propulsion technologies. The visit coincided with the Conference on Nuclear Power
Engineering in Space Nuclear Rocket Engines at Semipalatinsk-21 (Kurchatov, Kazakhstan)
on Sept. 22-25, 1992. Reactor facilities assessed in Semipalatinski-21 included the IVG-1 reactor
(a nuclear furnace, which has been modified and now called IVG-1M), the RA reactor,
and the Impulse Graphite Reactor (IGR), the CIS version of TREAT. Although the reactor
facilities are being maintained satisfactorily, the support infrastructure appears to be degrading.
The group assessment is based on two half-day tours of the Baikals-1 test facility and a brief
(2 hr) tour of IGR; because of limited time and the large size of the tour group, it was impossible
to obtain answers to all prepared questions.Potential benefit is that CIS
fuels and facilities
may permit USA to conduct a lower priced space nuclear propulsion program while achieving
higher performance capability faster, and immediate access to test facilities that cannot be
available in this country for 5 years. Information needs to be obtained about available data
acquisition capability, accuracy, frequency response, and number of channels. Potential areas
of interest with broad application in the U.S. nuclear industry are listed.


SOURCE: Harvard Abstracts
adsabs.harvard.edu...

Here is the crane sketch from the CIA RV Team members




Here is the large crane on Google Earth




Credit for the find and info gathering goes to
admiraltogo
Fort Smith, AR
Google Earth poster

This base was also the spot where the Russians tested their version of a Nuclear Rocket



www.thelivingmoon.com...

Strange Towers in a Russian Forest
Tesla Generators

Sychëvka, Moskovskaya Oblast' (Russia)
+55°55'26.15"N,36°49'10.97"



Update 2007-12-02 09:59:49

"These were part of the experiments do by the SU with Teslas work towards power transmission
and communication. Pictures all over the place on the internet. Nothing mysterious or new about it.
Or perhaps its a secret installation for taking over the world. Take you pick."

Below is the entry gate from Google Earth images... the caption translates to...
"Isled. the center of the high energies"





Test benches VNITS - ALL-UNION SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF CEMENT VEI
(high-voltage scientific research center of All-Russian electrotechnical institute).

Satellite View of the Instalation near Sychëvka, Moskovskaya Oblast' (Russia)



www.thelivingmoon.com...

The Russian Woodpecker
Duga Radar Array, Chenobyl, Ukraine
51°18'20.17"N, 30°04'02.60"E



"Woodpecker" Duga radar array, Chenobyl, Ukraine by Necator



РЛС Дуга-1 Чернобыль-2 (Radar arch-1 Chernobyl-2) by DM.HANTER

History

The Soviets had been
working on early warning radars for their anti-ballistic missile systems
through the 1960s, but most of these had been line-of-sight systems that were useful for raid analysis
and interception only. None of these systems had the capability to provide early-warning of a launch,
which would give the defenses time to study the attack and plan a response.
At the time the Soviet early-warning satellite network was not well developed,
so work started on over-the-horizon radar systems for this associated role in the late 1960s.

The first experimental system, Duga-1, was built outside Mykolaiv in the Ukraine,
successfully detecting rocket launches from Baikonur Cosmodrome at 2,500 kilometers.
This was followed by the prototype Duga-2, built on the same site, which was able to track
launches from the far east and submarines in the Pacific Ocean as the missiles flew towards
Novaya Zemlya. Both of these radars were aimed east and were fairly low power,
but with the concept proven work began on an operational system. The new Duga-3 systems
used a transmitter and receiver separated by about 60 km.[2]


en.wikipedia.org...



Чорнобиль-2. Приймальні антени (Chernobyl-2. Receiving Antenna) by djcrok



MANY more pictures

www.thelivingmoon.com...

hacksecret

จำนวนข้อความ : 1111
Registration date : 02/03/2010

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Re: The Search for Planet X : นักดาราศาสตร์ได้คำตอบเริ่มต้น อะไรจุดระเบิด “ซูเปอร์โนวา”

ตั้งหัวข้อ  hacksecret on Wed Mar 10, 2010 12:48 am

China Research Institute of Radiowave Propagation (CRIRP)
HAARP Like Facility
Ionospheric Laboratory
Ionospheric Laboratory, Xinjiang (Sinkiang) Region
40°24'15.91"N, 93°38'09.74"E

So far I have only found ONE of China's Arrays and one EISCAT type dish.

Not much data to go on either but the name...
CRIRP
China Research Institute of Radiowave Propagation




This facility is closest to Urumchi (Urumqi), Xinjiang Region, China.
Actually the whole region is filled with odd markings and will be a
whole thread
on its own but not related to radio waves...

Ionospheric sounding network and data in China

Wu Jian Jiao Peinan Xiao Zuo Wan Weixing Liu Ruiyuan Zhao Zhengyu
LEME, China Res. inst. of Radiowave Propagation, Beijing;

This paper appears in: Antennas, Propagation and EM Theory, 2000. Proceedings. ISAPE 2000. 5th International Symposium on
Publication
Date: 2000
On page(s): 688-691
Meeting Date: 08/15/2000 - 08/18/2000
Location: Beijing, China
ISBN: 0-7803-6377-9
References Cited: 10
INSPEC Accession Number: 6963766
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ISAPE.2000.894880
Current Version Published: 2002-08-06

Abstract Ionospheric sounding has been conducted routinely for more than 60 years in China.
A complete network of ground-based sounding sites covers the Chinese subcontinent,
including vertical and oblique sounding,
GPS measurement of ionospheric TEC and scintillation,
VLF receivers measuring the lower ionosphere etc. In this paper, we give a picture of
the sounding network, equipment situation and data acquired with emphasis on vertical
ionosonde network


SOURCE: IEEE
ieeexplore.ieee.org...

The Ionospheric Sounding in China

The ionospheric sounding in China has a long history and has a well spread network,
which is still keeping routine operation, providing a good background to do the ionospheric
long-term prediction and short-term forecasting. The ionospheric sounding in China started
in early 1940s (Wu et al., 2002). Fig.1 shows the ionospheric sounding network in China.
The sounding equipments and operation periods are listed in Table 1. Among them 11
ionosonde stations are still in operation in China mainland. The data at integer UT hours
are sent to forecasting center in Beijing twice a day through Internet.

There is also a daily exchange of ionospheric data with Russian (for 4 stations) and
with Australia (for 4 stations) respectively. A method of predicting the ionospheric F2 layer
in the Asia and Oceania Region (AOR Method [Sun X.R., 1987]) was adopted as a regional
ionospheric long-term prediction method in China and its surrounding area. Then this was
cooperated with the International Reference Ionosphere and became the Reference
Ionosphere in China (CRI) [Liu et al., 1994].


www.irf.se...



Preliminary studies on ionospheric forecasting in China and its surrounding area

R. Liua, Corresponding Author Contact Information E-mail The Corresponding Author,
Z. Xua, J. Wub, S. Liua, B. Zhanga and G. Wangb

Polar Research Institute of China, 451 Jinqiao Road., Shanghai 200136,
China bChina Research Institute of Radiowave Propagation, Xinxiang 453003, China

Abstract

The ionospheric sounding in China has a long history and has a well spread network,
which is still keeping routine operation. The autocorrelation method is adopted for
the short-term forecasting of ionospheric characteristics. The performances of the forecasts
at Chongqing have been examined for different combination of parameters and algorithms
by estimating the prediction errors. Preliminary results show that for predictions of more than
10 h ahead the “at once” method with f0F2 is preferable. For predictions of less than 10 h
ahead the “iterations” method with View the MathML source is the best. A corrected method
of the International Reference Ionosphere used in China region (the CRI model) is described
in this paper. By introducing an effective ionospheric index Ice into the CRI model
the regional forecasting could be realized.


SOURCE:
Science Direst

Home Address:
National Key Lab of Electromagnetic Environment, China Research
Institute of Radiowave Propagation (CRIRP), P.O. Box 6301, Beijing
102206, China,






www.thelivingmoon.com...

Zhong Shan Antarctic Polar Station (China)
69º 22' 23.63" S 76º 22' 19.11" E

Introduction

Of the two Chinese scientific stations in Antarctic, the one in Zhong Shan is closely
conjugated with the Svalbard area in the northern hemisphere.
This makes it a valuable place for coordinated measurements both with the EISCAT
Svalbard Radar (ESR) and the Polar satellite. In 1991 a cooperation agreement was signed
between the Ionospheric Laboratory of the China Research Institute of Radiowave Propagation
(CRIRP) in Xinxiang, China, and the Department of Physical Sciences, University of Oulu, Finland,
to build an auroral photometer system for the Zhong Shan station (Kaila et al, 1997).
The multichannel scanning photometer agreed upon was constructed in Oulu by April 1995,
and delivered to China in May. Measurements were supposed to start in March 1997,
to be continued during the local winter time until October (the same schedule of measurements
is planned for every year). However, due to problems mentioned above, the current status of
the system is unknown!

The Zhong Shan Station, Antarctica
www.thelivingmoon.com...

Sheshan, Shanghai, China
EISCAT Like Facility
31°5′41.98″N, 121°11′29.72″E



The Sheshan 25m radio telescope is an alt-az antenna run by SHAO.
The telescope is located in the Sheshan area, about 40km west of Shanghai.

This one is in the middle of the Old Jesuit Cathedral lot. They have an observatory there as well



Observatory and Church




www.thelivingmoon.com...

http://www.strategypage.com/militaryforums/69-23748.aspx

http://www.worldtribune.com/worldtribune/06/front2453769.0986111113.html

China radar at South Pole could sabotage U.S. spy satellites

Special to World Tribune.com
EAST-ASIA-INTEL.COM
Thursday, February 2, 2006

Beijing announced plans last week to build a high-frequency radar on the South Pole.
Analysts say the radar could be used to disrupt U.S. intelligence satellites.


China's Zhongshan Station in Antarctica on Jan. 24.
AP Photo /Xinhua, Zhang Zongtang


The radar will be built at China’s Zhongshan Station, where Beijing has set up of
a space environment lab.

National security analysts say the South Pole site, because of its remoteness,
could be used by China to develop anti-satellite lasers capable of blinding or disrupting U.S.
reconnaissance satellites, most of which pass over the pole.
The station will consist of 20 antenna units,
including 16 units for the main antenna and four for the auxiliary antenna. Each antenna is 20 meters high.
The high-frequency radar can detect ionospheric convection within a range of 3,000 kilometers.

Chinese officials told Xinhua the station would be used to measure the polar space environment.

China’s space program, unlike the U.S. space program, is directly related to Chinese military operations.

A Pentagon report on the Chinese military last year said China was “working on,
and plans to field, ASAT systems.”

http://eies.ats.aq/Ats.IE/ieGenRpt.aspx?idParty=9&period=1&idYear=2009
Antarctic Treaty

Electronic Information Exchange System

Party: China

2009/2010 Pre-Season Information
http://spaceweb.oulu.fi/projects/optical/zhongshan.html
The Zhong Shan photometer

spaceweb@oulu.fi - last update: 8 May 1996, 0825 UT (RR)
The Space Physics Group of Oulu has developed an auroralphotometer to be operated
in the Chinese Zhong Shan station in Antarctic. This station is closely conjugated with
the Svalbard area.


Important note: This message was received on 8 May 1996 from China:
The trip to Zhongshan of the Chinese Antactic Research Expedition had met some trouble
in the way. The ice breaker "Snow Dragon" was already arrived the Great Wall station in
the end of 1995. Some part of the ship was gone wrong. Most of the expedition members have
to back with the ship. The photometer and other instruments including Japanese instruments
have been returned to China too. We and the photometer have to wait next trip to Zhongshan.


Introduction

Of the two Chinese scientific stations in Antarctic, the one in Zhong Shan is closely
conjugated with the Svalbard area in the northern hemisphere. This makes it a valuable place
for coordinated measurements both with the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR) and the Polar satellite.
In 1991 a cooperation agreement was signed between the Ionospheric Laboratory of
the China Research Institute of Radiowave Propagation (CRIRP) in Xinxiang, China,
and the Department of Physical Sciences, University of Oulu, Finland,
to build an auroral photometer system for the Zhong Shan station (Kaila et al, 1997).
The multichannel scanning photometer agreed upon was constructed in Oulu by April 1995,
and delivered to China in May. Measurements were supposed to start in March 1997,
to be continued during the local winter time until October (the same schedule of measurements
is planned for every year). However, due to problems mentioned above, the current status of
the system is unknown!

The Zhong Shan station



Figure 1. Locations of Zhong Shan station (ZHO), South Pole (SP) and Magnetic South Pole (MSP).
The line drawn over the station shows the scanning area at the altitude of 250 km.

The Zhong Shan station is located at 69.4°S, 76.4°E (Figure 1). Table 1 lists the most important figures
related to this location. Note that the Zhong Shan station is at high enough latitude to be,
most of the time, inside the polar cap or at the polarward edge of the auroral oval.

Table 1: The Zhong Shan station Geographic location 69.4°S, 76.4°E Geomagnetic latitude, MLT midnight, and geographic conjugate point are calculated with geocgm s/w from NSSDCA B field azimuth is calculated towards west from south Geomagnetic latitude -76.8° MLT midnight 21:28 UT B elevation and azimuth 71.5°, 102.5° Geogr. conjugate point 78.2°N, 0.6°W

Figure 2a shows the height of the sun in Zhong Shan as a function of time of year and
UT in isocontour lines of constant elevation angles of 0°, 6°, 12°, and 18° below horizon.
The best conditions for optical measurements are when the sun is lower than -18° from the horizon, i.e.,
during the nights between March and September. In mid-winter this makes over 13 hours of
measurements per night. By extending the measurements to cover elevations up to -12° during
winter daytime one reaches the cusp/LLBL region in the afternoon hours (11:00 UT = 16:00 LT = 13:30 MLT).



Figure 2. Degrees of light and darkness in a) Zhong Shan and b) Kilpisjärvi during a year
as indicated by the height of the sun from the horizon.
The Zhong Shan station is magnetically
conjugated with the Svalbard area, the conjugate point being about 400 km west of the island (Figure 3).

Note that, with increasing magnetic activity, this point moves southward by few degrees.
The EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR) can cover approximately the same area. Several groups will
also provide, e.g., CCD-based all-sky cameras on Svalbard and in Greenland’s east coast covering
the conjugate area of Zhong Shan.


Figure 3. EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR), Kilpisjärvi (KIL) and the Zhong Shan conjugate point.

It is interesting to check if there are common periods of darkness between Northern Scandinavia
and Zhong Shan. The map of sun’s height for Kilpisjärvi, Finland, is drawn in Figure 2b in the same format
as was done for Zhong Shan. It can be seen that there are two periods, one in spring (March) and
one in fall (September), when the stations can make simultaneous optical measurements.
These periods occur around the local magnetic midnights, and can be several hours long
when allowing measurements in the not optimal -12° sun elevation angles. The common periods
get shorter closer to the modelled conjugate point.

The photometer constructed in Oulu will not be the only instrument to be operated in Zhong Shan.
In addition to normal magnetic measurements made by the Chinese, the National Institute of
Polar Research (NIPR) in Japan has, in cooperation with the Polar Research Institute in Shanghai, China,
a TV-camera, an all-sky-camera, a photometer, and an imaging riometer in Zhong Shan.

Instrument

The instrument installed in Zhong Shan is a scanning, five channel auroral photometer with
the possibility to measure the background light by tilting the individual filters at preset intervals.
The wavelengths measured are listed in Table 2.

Table 2: Photometer channels Wave- length (nm) Source Sensiti- vity p/Rs 425.2 N2+ 1NG (0-1) R-band 5.7 426.7 N2+ 1NG (0-1) R-band 7.5 427.8 N2+ 1NG (0-1) P-band 8.3 486.1 H+ 10. 630.0 O(1D) 1.4

The basic lines are the blue nitrogen line 427.8 nm and the red oxygen line 630.0 nm,
an often used combination to measure the energy characteristics of the precitating electrons
(Rees and Luckey, 1974; Rees and Roble, 1986). The proton line 486.1 nm can be used to
study the proton precipitation. In addition, the N2+ 1 NG band shape depends on
the rotational temperature of neutral molecules in the emission source region.
By measuring the P-branch and two parts of the R-branch we can determine this temperature
and use it to define yet another energy parameter for the precipitating electrons.
The field of views of the channels are 3° for the proton line, and 2° for the others.
The proton precipitation is typically much more diffuse than the electron precipitation,
and we can thus improve the sensitivity of the channel by using wider spatial integration.
The photometer is operating in pulse counting mode and it is controlled from a standard 386 PC.
The accumulated pulses are read from the counter card with a sampling frequency that can be
as high as 100 samples/second. The absolute time is kept correct with a GPS clock,
and the elevation angle (measurement direction) with an absolute angle encoder.
Data is written into a hard disk in a binary format.

Measurements

The photometer will be measuring continuously during the dark periods.
This will total up to about 2210 hours of measurements per year from March the 2nd to
October the 13th (full moon periods are also included). Measurements will be made either
at fixed direction towards the magnetic zenith or with a scanning angle of 160°
(higher than 10° above the horizon). The scanning plane, determined by the magnetic field
direction and realized by proper orientation of the instrument, is drawn in Figure 1 as
a line at the altitude of 250 km, which is typical height for the 630.0 nm emission.
For the N2+ lines the region covered is about half of this. Several different modes in
which the instrument can be run are listed in Table 3.

Table 3: Measurement modes Mode # Description Integration- times (sec) 1 2 3 11 13
Normal mode; fixed direction or scan 0.05-0.5
Fast mode with individual integrationon times
for different channels; fixed direction
0.01-1
Midex mode; both fixed direction and scan 0.1-0.3
Mode 1 with fast scanning speed 0.1-0.3
Mode 3 with fast scanning speed 0.1-0.3
The instrument will be operated mostly in modes 1 and 11, either with a fixed direction or with
a scan. Sometimes the photometer will be operated in the mixed modes 3 and 13,
in which 800 seconds of field aligned measurements alternate with a full back and forth scan
of 160°. Mode 2 will be used only in special events. Since it is not possible to get the data
from Zhong Shan during the Antarctic winter time, the related satellite studies will suffer from
a considerable time delay. However, it is planned that the raw data products, e.g.,
in the form of quick-look-plots, will be made publicly available as soon as possible,
and interested parties with complementing data sets are invited to take part in
the subsequent data analysis.

Discussion

As already mentioned, the Zhong Shan station will be most of the time in the polar cap region
or at the polarward edge of the auroral oval. Also the optical cusp/LLBL region can be accessed
in the afternoon sector. Accordingly, different optical phenomena can be studied as
the photometer measures several important emission lines simultaneously with high temporal resolution.
In the dayside these include, e.g., dayside auroral breakups and their relation to reconnection
processes (e.g. Farrugia et al., 1995), cusp related Pc 3 range optical pulsations (Engebretson et al., 1990),
and the 1400-1600 MLT sector bright spots (e.g., Vo and Murphree, 1995). The ability of the instrument
to measure the background light makes the measurements more reliable also during these
less optimal dayside hours. Because of the GPS timing the data can be compared with satellite
and other measurements without timing errors.

The Zhong Shan measurements have a value of their own. However, together with other measurements,
either by ground-based instruments in the conjugate northern hemisphere or by satellites,
they are even more important. For example, the EISCAT Svalbard Radar measurements may obtain
optical support from the Zhong Shan station during the light Arctic summer, when similar measurements
are not possible in the northern hemisphere. One may also try to study conjugate optical phenomena
during the short periods of common darkness in Zhong Shan and Northern Scandinavia.
The Oulu group plans coordinated optical measurements between Zhong Shan and Kilpisjärvi
in March and September each year. Finally, the Cluster and other satellite projects will provide
possibilities for further coordinated studies.

Acknowledgements

The financial support of the University of Oulu for the photometer hardware is
gratefully acknowledged. Collaboration between the University of Oulu and CRIRP, China,
has been possible due to the grants for visiting scientists from the Academy of Finland.

References


  • Engebretson, M. J., B. J. Anderson, J. L. J. Cahill, R. L. Arnoldy, T. J. Rosenberg, D.
    L. Carpenter, W. B. Gail, and R. H. Eather, Ionospheric signatures of cusp latitude Pc 3
    pulsations, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 2447-2456, 1990.
  • Farrugia, C. J., P. E. Sandholt, S. W. H. Cowley, D. J. Southwood, A. Egeland, P.
    Stauning, R. P. Lepping, A. J. Lazarus, T. Hansen, and E. Friis-Christensen,
    Reconnection-associated auroral activity stimulated by two types of upstream dynamic
    pressure variations: interplanetary magnetic field Bz~0, By, J. Geophys. Res., 100,
    21753-21772, 1995.
  • Kaila, K.U., C. Chong, Z. Qunshan, H. Holma, R. Rasinkangas, and J. Kangas: Auroral
    photometer measurements in Antarctic: The Zhong Shan station. Satellite-Ground Based
    Coordination Sourcebook
    , edited by M. Lockwood, H.J. Opgenoorth, M.N. Wild, and R.
    Stamper, 183-191, 1997.
  • Rees, M. H. and D. Luckey, Auroral electron energy derived from ratio of spectroscopic
    emissions. 1. Model computations, J. Geophys. Res., 79, 5181-5186, 1974.
  • Rees, M. H. and R. G. Roble, Exitation of O(1D) atoms in aurorae and emission of the
    [OI] 6300 - Å line, Can. J. Phys., 64, 1608-1613, 1986.
  • Vo, H. B. and J. S. Murphree, A study of dayside auroral bright spots seen by the Viking
    auroral imager, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 3649-3655, 1995.




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